Aluminum is the second most abundant metallic element in the Earth’s crust after silicon, yet it is a comparatively new industrial metal that has been produced in commercial quantities for just over 100 years. It weighs about one-third as much as steel or copper; is malleable, ductile, and easily machined and cast; and has excellent corrosion resistance and durability. Measured either in quantity or value, aluminum’s use exceeds that of any other metal except iron, and it is important in virtually all segments of the world economy. Some of the many uses for aluminum are in transportation (automobiles, airplanes, trucks, railcars, marine vessels, etc.), packaging (cans, foil, etc.), construction (windows, doors, siding, etc), consumer durables (appliance s, cooking utensils, etc.), electrical transmission lines, machinery, and many other applications.BAUXITE
Bauxite is not a mineral. It is a rock formed from a laterite soil that has been severely leached of silica and other soluble materials in a wet tropical or subtropical climate. It is the primary ore of aluminum. Almost all of the aluminum that has ever been produced has been extracted from bauxite.

A native element, antimony metal is extracted from stibnite and other minerals. Antimony is used as a hardening alloy for lead, especially storage batteries and cable sheaths, also used in bearing metal, type metal, solder collapsible tubes and foil, sheet and pipes, and semiconductor technology.

A native element, antimony metal is extracted from stibnite and other minerals. Antimony is used as a hardening alloy for lead, especially storage batteries and cable sheaths, also used in bearing metal, type metal, solder collapsible tubes and foil, sheet and pipes, and semiconductor technology.

Barite is a mineral consisting of barium sulfate. It most often occurs in hydrothermal veins and as veins in limestones. It is a relatively inert mineral with a high density. It is the primary ore of barium. The most common use of barite is as a weighting agent in drilling muds.
Most barite produced is used as a weighting agent in drilling muds. These high density muds are circulated down the drill stem and return to the surface between the drill stem and the wall of the well. This action effectively flushes the cuttings produced by the drill and carries them to the surface. Barite is also used as a pigment in paints and as a weighted filler for paper and cloth. Barite’s high density makes it opaque to x-rays. If it is given to a patient as a drink or enema it can be used to image the shape of internal organs by x-ray.

Witherite is a rare mineral, especially since it easily alters to the more common mineral Barite. It alters when sulfuric acid from sulfide minerals dissolves the Witherite, and the sulfur combines with the barium element to form Barite. Witherite is also formed from Calcite that loses the calcium element which instead gets replaced by barium, thus forming Witherite in the process.
Thin, long crystals and aggregates of Witherite should be handled carefully, as they are fragile and easily damaged.

Bentonite is an absorbent aluminium phyllosilicate, essentially impure clay consisting mostly of montmorillonite. Bentonite usually forms from weathering of volcanic ash, most often in the presence of water. However, the term bentonite, as well as a similar clay called tonstein, has been used to describe clay beds of uncertain origin. For industrial purposes, two main classes of bentonite exist: sodium and calcium bentonite.

Chromium is a metalic element. Because it is very hard and has a melt­ ing point of 1857 °C, it is used to increase the hardness of metals and in the manufacturing of armoured vehi­ cles. It is quarried in Erzurum, Adana, Elazığ, Mugla, Bursa and Eskişehir

Used in superalloys for jet engines, chemicals (paint driers, catalysts, magnetic coatings, pigments, rechargeable batteries), magnets, and cemented carbides for cutting tools. Principal cobalt producing countries include Democratic Republic of the Congo, Zambia, Canada, Cuba, Australia, and Russia. The United States uses about one-third of total world consumption. Cobalt resources in the United States are low grade and production from these deposits is usually not economically feasible.

Copper (German: Kupfer, French: cuivre) is a group 18 transition metal. Because copper was first found in Cyprus, it is thought that it’s names in all languages are derived from Cyprium. Main copper quarries include Maden in Elazığ (Ergani copper smelter), Murgul in Artvin (Gbkta) and Kure in Kastamonu. New copper deposits have been discovered in Rize, Çayeli

Dolomite is used as an ornamental stone, a concrete aggregate, a source of magnesium oxide and in the Pidgeon process for the production of magnesium. It is an important petroleum reservoir rock, and serves as the host rock for large strata-bound Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT) ore deposits of base metals such as lead, zinc, and copper. Where calcite limestone is uncommon or too costly, dolomite is sometimes used in its place as a flux for the smelting of iron and steel. Large quantities of processed dolomite are used in the production of float glass.

Emery and Other Abrasives Is a very hard rock type used to make abrasive powder. It largely consists of the mineral corundum (aluminium oxide), mixed with other species such as the iron-bearing spinels hercynite and magnetite and also rutile (titania). Industrial emery may contain a variety of other minerals and synthetic compounds such as magnesia, mullite, and silica.

Dolomite is used as an ornamental stone, a concrete aggregate, a source of magnesium oxide and in the Pidgeon process for the production of magnesium. It is an important petroleum reservoir rock, and serves as the host rock for large strata-bound Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT) ore deposits of base metals such as lead, zinc, and copper. Where calcite limestone is uncommon or too costly, dolomite is sometimes used in its place as a flux for the smelting of iron and steel. Large quantities of processed dolomite are used in the production of float glass.

Ferrochrome (FeCr) is an alloy of chromium and iron containing between 50% and 70% chromium. The ferrochrome is produced by electric arc melting of chromite, an iron magnesium chromium oxide and the most important chromium ore. Most of the world’s ferrochrome is produced in South Africa, Kazakhstan and India, which have large domestic chromite resources. Increasing amounts are coming from Russia and China. The production of steel is the largest consumer of ferrochrome, especially the production of stainless steel with chromium content of 10 to 20% is the main application of ferrochrome.

Gypsum is a mineral containing calsium sul­ fate in its chemical composition. In addition to natural Gypsum, synthetic gypsum is pro­ duced as well. Important gypsum sources include ankm orum, Yozgat, Erzincan, Ankara-Bala, Sivas, Kars-Kağızman, Tuzluca, Denizli-Sarayköy and Niğde-Karakol.

Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted. The ores are usually rich in iron oxides and vary in color from dark grey, bright yellow, deep purple, to rusty red. The iron itself is usually found in the form of magnetite (Fe3O4), hematite (Fe2O3), goethite (FeO(OH)), limonite (FeO(OH).n(H2O)) or siderite (FeCO3).
Magnetite
Magnetite is best known for its property that it is strongly attracted to magnets. Some forms of Magnetite from specific localities are in fact themselves magnets. This form is known as Lodestone, and is the only mineral that acts as a natural magnet. Although its magnetism is weak, it is strong enough to attract large nails. Due to its magnetic properties, small iron particles are often found clinging to its surfaces. Some dealers intentionally place metallic filings on a Lodestone to demonstrate its magnetism.
Hematite
Hematite is one of the most common minerals. The color of most red and brown rock, such as sandstone, is caused by small amounts of Hematite. It is also be responsible for the red color of many minerals such as Garnet, Spinel, and to some extent, Ruby. Non-crystalline forms of Hematite may be transformations of the mineral Limonite that lost water, possibly due to heat.

Kaolin is a very common mineral. Kaolin is a soft, earthy, usually white mineral, produced by the chemical conditioning of aluminum silicate mineral. Kaolin is used in ceramics, medicine, bricks, coated paper, as a food additive, in toothpaste, as a light diffusing material in white incandescent light bulbs, and in cosmetics and as a filler in many other applications. Kaolin has even been used for spiritual and healing purposes! It is also being formulated as a spray to be applied to fruits and vegetables to prevent insect damage and infestation. The largest and most common use is in the paper industry. It is the main ingredient in creating “glossy” paper. Other materials such as calcium carbonate (which is an alternative material) competes with Kaolin as the most important source/ingredient for creating shiny paper.

Lead is a chemical element in the carbon group with symbol ,atomic number 82. Lead is a soft and malleable metal, which is regarded as a heavy metal and poor metal. Metallic lead has a bluish-white color after being freshly cut, but it soon tarnishes to a dull grayish color when exposed to air. Lead has a shiny chrome-silver luster when it is melted into a liquid.
Lead is used in building construction, lead-acid batteries, bullets and shot, weights, as part of solders, pewters, fusible alloys, and as a radiation shield. Lead has the highest atomic number of all of the stable elements, although the next higher element, bismuth, has a half-life that is so long (much longer than the age of the universe) that it can be considered stable. Its four stable isotopes have 82 protons, a magic number in the nuclear shell model of atomic nuclei.
GALENA
Galena is a lead sulfide mineral commonly found in hydrothermal veins; or as fracture filings, cavity fillings and replacements in limestone. Lesser amounts are found in many igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. Galena is the primary ore of lead and is often mined for its silver content (silver substitutes for lead within the galena structure). Its perfect cleavage, silver color and very high specific gravity make it very easy to identify.
Galena is the most important ore of lead. Most lead is consumed in making batteries, however, significant amounts are also used to make lead sheets, pipe and shot. It is also used to make low-melting-point alloys. Its use as a pigment has declined as has its use in making solder.

Magnesite is a compound of magnesium, its chemical formula is MgC03, and its color varies between white, yellow, grey and brown. It is found in nature as cryptocrystalline and crystalline. It is a tough and complex mineral, and is an alteration product of serpentinite or similar rock types. There are magnesite reserves in Konya, Balıkesir, Bursa, Bilecik, Ankara, Kütahya, Eskişehir and Erzincan.

Steel becomes harder when it is alloyed with manganese. It has similar applications when alloyed with aluminum and copper. Hardened steel is important in the manufacture of construction materials like I-beams (24% of manganese consumption), machinery (14% of manganese consumption), and transportation (13% of manganese consumption).Manganese dioxide is used to: manufacture ferroalloys; manufacture dry cell batteries (it’s a depolarizer); to “decolorize” glass; to prepare some chemicals, like oxygen and chlorine; and to dry black paints. Manganese sulfate (MnSO4) is used as a chemical intermediate and as a micronutrient in animal feeds and plant fertilizers. Manganese metal is used as a brick and ceramic colorant, in copper and aluminum alloys, and as a chemical oxidizer and catalyst. Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) is used as a bactericide and algaecide in water and wastewater treatment, and as an oxidant in organic chemical synthesis.